The term dirty bomb refers to a specialized device that relies on a comparatively low explosive yield to scatter harmful material over a wide area.
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Most commonly associated with radiological or chemical materials, dirty bombs seek to kill or injure and then to deny access to a contaminated area until a thorough clean-up can be accomplished. In the case of urban settings, this clean-up may take extensive time, rendering the contaminated zone virtually uninhabitable in the interim. The power of large bombs is typically measured in kilotons kt or megatons of TNT Mt. The most powerful bombs ever used in combat were the two atomic bombs dropped by the United States to attack Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and the most powerful ever tested was the Tsar Bomba.
Below is a list of five different types of bombs based on the fundamental explosive mechanism they employ. Relatively small explosions can be produced by pressurizing a container until catastrophic failure such as with a dry ice bomb. Technically, devices that create explosions of this type can not be classified as "bombs" by the definition presented at the top of this article.
However, the explosions created by these devices can cause property damage, injury, or death. Flammable liquids, gasses and gas mixtures dispersed in these explosions may also ignite if exposed to a spark or flame. The simplest and oldest bombs store energy in the form of a low explosive. Black powder is an example of a low explosive. Low explosives typically consist of a mixture of an oxidizing salt, such as potassium nitrate saltpeter , with solid fuel, such as charcoal or aluminium powder. These compositions deflagrate upon ignition, producing hot gas.
Birmingham Church Bombing
Under normal circumstances, this deflagration occurs too slowly to produce a significant pressure wave; low explosives, therefore, must generally be used in large quantities or confined in a container with a high burst pressure to be useful as a bomb. A high explosive bomb is one that employs a process called " detonation " to rapidly go from an initially high energy molecule to a very low energy molecule.
Therefore, the pressure wave produced by a high explosive is not significantly increased by confinement as detonation occurs so quickly that the resulting plasma does not expand much before all the explosive material has reacted. This has led to the development of plastic explosive.
A casing is still employed in some high explosive bombs, but with the purpose of fragmentation. Most high explosive bombs consist of an insensitive secondary explosive that must be detonated with a blasting cap containing a more sensitive primary explosive. A thermobaric bomb is a type of explosive that utilizes oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive.
The fuel-air bomb is one of the best-known types of thermobaric weapons.
Nuclear fission type atomic bombs utilize the energy present in very heavy atomic nuclei, such as U or Pu In order to release this energy rapidly, a certain amount of the fissile material must be very rapidly consolidated while being exposed to a neutron source.
If consolidation occurs slowly, repulsive forces drive the material apart before a significant explosion can occur. Under the right circumstances, rapid consolidation can provoke a chain reaction that can proliferate and intensify by many orders of magnitude within microseconds. The energy released by a nuclear fission bomb may be tens of thousands of times greater than a chemical bomb of the same mass.
A thermonuclear weapon is a type of nuclear bomb that releases energy through the combination of fission and fusion of the light atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium.
With this type of bomb, a thermonuclear detonation is triggered by the detonation of a fission type nuclear bomb contained within a material containing high concentrations of deuterium and tritium. Weapon yield is typically increased with a tamper that increases the duration and intensity of the reaction through inertial confinement and neutron reflection. Nuclear fusion bombs can have arbitrarily high yields making them hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than nuclear fission. A pure fusion weapon is a nuclear weapon that doesn't require a primary fission stage to start a fusion reaction.
Antimatter bombs can theoretically be constructed, but antimatter is very costly to produce and hard to store safely. An inert bomb is one whose inner energetic material has been removed or otherwise rendered harmless. Inert munitions are used in military and naval training, and they are also collected and displayed by public museums, or by private parties.
The first air-dropped bombs were used by the Austrians in the siege of Venice. Two hundred unmanned balloons carried small bombs, although few bombs actually hit the city. The first bombing from a fixed-wing aircraft took place in when the Italians dropped bombs by hand on the Turkish lines in what is now Libya , during the Italo-Turkish War. During World War II bombing became a major military feature, and a number of novel delivery methods were introduced.
These included Barnes Wallis 's bouncing bomb , designed to bounce across water, avoiding torpedo nets and other underwater defenses, until it reached a dam , ship , or other destination, where it would sink and explode. Modern military bomber aircraft are designed around a large-capacity internal bomb bay , while fighter-bombers usually carry bombs externally on pylons or bomb racks or on multiple ejection racks which enable mounting several bombs on a single pylon. Parachutes slow the bomb's descent, giving the dropping aircraft time to get to a safe distance from the explosion.
This is especially important with airburst nuclear weapons especially those dropped from slower aircraft or with very high yields , and in situations where the aircraft releases a bomb at low altitude. Aircraft may also deliver bombs in the form of warheads on guided missiles , such as long-range cruise missiles , which can also be launched from warships.http://derivid.route1.com/todo-lo-que-hay-narrativa.php
Germany bombs London
A hand grenade is delivered by being thrown. Grenades can also be projected by other means, such as being launched from the muzzle of a rifle as in the rifle grenade , using a grenade launcher such as the M , or by attaching a rocket to the explosive grenade as in a rocket-propelled grenade RPG.
A bomb destroying a rail track just before a train arrives will usually cause the train to derail. In addition to the damage to vehicles and people, a bomb exploding in a transport network often damages, and is sometimes mainly intended to damage, the network itself. This applies for railways , bridges , runways , and ports , and, to a lesser extent depending on circumstances , to roads. In the case of suicide bombing , the bomb is often carried by the attacker on his or her body, or in a vehicle driven to the target. The Blue Peacock nuclear mines, which were also termed "bombs", were planned to be positioned during wartime and be constructed such that, if disturbed, they would explode within ten seconds.
The explosion of a bomb may be triggered by a detonator or a fuse. Detonators are triggered by clocks , remote controls like cell phones or some kind of sensor, such as pressure altitude , radar , vibration or contact. Detonators vary in ways they work, they can be electrical, fire fuze or blast initiated detonators and others,.
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In forensic science , the point of detonation of a bomb is referred to as its blast seat, seat of explosion, blast hole or epicenter. Depending on the type, quantity and placement of explosives, the blast seat may be either spread out or concentrated i. Other types of explosions , such as dust or vapor explosions, do not cause craters or even have definitive blast seats. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the explosive. For other uses, see Bomb disambiguation.
For artillery and aerial bombing, see bombardment. For other uses, see The Bombing disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: History of gunpowder. Main article: Fragmentation weaponry. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main articles: Inert munitions and military dummy.
In Ayn Embar-seddon; Allan D. As the ground began to rumble, she quickly tore off the tatami flooring, tucked me under it and hovered over me on all fours. Everything turned white. We were too stunned to move, for about 10 minutes. When we finally crawled out from under the tatami mat, there was glass everywhere, and tiny bits of dust and debris floating in the air.
The once clear blue sky had turned into an inky shade of purple and grey. We rushed home and found my sister — she was shell-shocked, but fine. Every person at her school died.
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My mother singlehandedly saved both me and my sister that day. We had been hiding out in the local bomb shelter for several days, but one by one, people started to head home. My siblings and I played in front of the bomb shelter entrance, waiting to be picked up by our grandfather.
Then, at am, the sky turned bright white. My siblings and I were knocked off our feet and violently slammed back into the bomb shelter. We had no idea what had happened. As we sat there shell-shocked and confused, heavily injured burn victims came stumbling into the bomb shelter en masse.
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Their skin had peeled off their bodies and faces and hung limply down on the ground, in ribbons. Their hair was burnt down to a few measly centimeters from the scalp. Many of the victims collapsed as soon as they reached the bomb shelter entrance, forming a massive pile of contorted bodies. The stench and heat were unbearable.
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