With the rise of mass media in the early 20th century, companies soon adopted techniques that would allow their messages to stand out; slogans , mascots , and jingles began to appear on radio in the s and in early television broadcasting in the s. Soap manufacturers sponsored many of the earliest radio-drama series, and the genre became known as soap opera. Effective branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but of other products associated with that brand.
Brand development, often the task of a design team , takes time to produce. A brand name is the part of a brand that can be spoken or written and identifies a product, service or company and sets it apart from other comparable products within a category. A brand name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, designs, or any combination of these elements.
For consumers, a brand name is a "memory heuristic"; a convenient way to remember preferred product choices. A brand name is not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the brand name or part of a brand that is legally protected. Simply, the brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of images, a slogan, a vision, a design, writing style, a particular font or a symbol etc.
A brand's attributes are a set of labels with which the corporation wishes to be associated. For example, a brand may showcase its primary attribute as environmental friendliness. However, a brand's attributes alone are not enough to persuade a customer into purchasing the product.
If a brand's attribute is being environmentally friendly, customers will receive the benefit of feeling that they are helping the environment by associating with the brand. Aside from attributes and benefits, a brand's identity may also involve branding to focus on representing its core set of values. Even more extensive than its perceived values is a brand's personality. Aaker conceptualised brand personality as consisting of five broad dimensions, namely: sincerity down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful , excitement daring, spirited, imaginative, and up to date , competence reliable, intelligent, and successful , sophistication glamorous, upper class, charming , and ruggedness outdoorsy and tough.
Much of the literature on branding suggests that consumers prefer brands with personalities that are congruent with their own. Consumers may distinguish the psychological aspect brand associations like thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand of a brand from the experiential aspect.
The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is termed the consumer's brand experience. The brand is often intended to create an emotional response and recognition, leading to potential loyalty and repeat purchases. The brand experience is a brand's action perceived by a person. Marketers or product managers responsible for branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique.
Orientation of an entire organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. Brand orientation develops in response to market intelligence. Careful brand management seeks to make products or services relevant and meaningful to a target audience. Marketers tend to treat brands as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price; rather brands represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer and are often treated as the total investment in brand building activities including marketing communications. Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services, [ citation needed ] as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic see also brand promise.
From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services can command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no associated branding such as a generic , store-branded product , potential purchasers may often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of the perceived quality of the brand or on the basis of the reputation of the brand owner.
Brands helps customers to understand which brands or products belong to which product or service category. Thus, the brand offers the customer a short-cut to understanding the different product or service offerings that make up a particular category. Brand awareness is a key step in the customer's purchase decision process, since some kind of awareness is a precondition to purchasing. That is, customers will not consider a brand if they are not aware of it. Each form reflects a different stage in a customer's cognitive ability to address the brand in a given circumstance. Marketers typically identify two distinct types of brand awareness; namely brand recall also known as unaided recall or occasionally spontaneous recall and brand recognition also known as aided brand recall.
Brand recognition is one of the initial phases of brand awareness and validates whether or not a customer remembers being pre-exposed to the brand. This does not necessarily require that the consumers identify or recall the brand name. When customers experience brand recognition, they are triggered by either a visual or verbal cue. When given some type of cue, consumers who are able to retrieve the particular memory node that referred to the brand, they exhibit brand recognition. Brand recognition is often the mode of brand awareness that operates in retail shopping environments.
When presented with a product at the point-of-sale, or after viewing its visual packaging, consumers are able to recognize the brand and may be able to associate it with attributes or meanings acquired through exposure to promotion or word-of-mouth referrals. Brand recognition is most successful when people can elicit recognition without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors.theattitudemarketing.com/wp-includes/map3.php
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Unlike brand recognition, brand recall also known as unaided brand recall or spontaneous brand recall is the ability of the customer retrieving the brand correctly from memory. This level of brand awareness is stronger than brand recognition, as the brand must be firmly cemented in the consumer's memory to enable unassisted remembrance.
Thus, brand recall is a confirmation that previous branding touchpoints have successfully fermented in the minds of its consumers. Marketing-mix modeling can help marketing leaders optimize how they spend marketing budgets to maximize the impact on brand awareness or on sales. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing-mix modeling techniques in conjunction with brand valuation.
Brands typically comprise various elements, such as: . Although brand identity is a fundamental asset to a brand's equity , the worth of a brand's identity would become obsolete without ongoing brand communication. The effectiveness of a brand's communication is determined by how accurately the customer perceives the brand's intended message through its IMC. Although IMC is a broad strategic concept, the most crucial brand communication elements are pinpointed [ by whom?
One can analyse the traditional communication model into several consecutive steps: . When a brand communicates a brand identity to a receiver, it runs the risk of the receiver incorrectly interpreting the message. Therefore, a brand should use appropriate communication channels to positively "…affect how the psychological and physical aspects of a brand are perceived".
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In order for brands to effectively communicate to customers, marketers must "…consider all touch point s, or sources of contact, that a customer has with the brand". Any point where a customer has an interaction with the brand - whether watching a television advertisement, hearing about a brand through word of mouth, or even noticing a branded license plate — defines a touch point.
According to Dahlen et al. One methodology involves using sensory stimuli touch points to activate customer emotion. For example, a brand may recognize that advertising touch points are most effective during the pre-purchase experience stage therefore they may target their advertisements to new customers rather than to existing customers. Overall, a brand has the ability to strengthen brand equity by using IMC branding communications through touch points. Brand communication is important in ensuring brand success in the business world and refers to how businesses transmit their brand messages, characteristics and attributes to their consumers.
EWoM is a relatively new [ when? Research further found that the more consumers "retweeted" and communicated with a brand, the more they trusted the brand. This suggests that a company could look to employ a social-media campaign to gain consumer trust and loyalty as well as in the pursuit of communicating brand messages. McKee also looked into brand communication and states that when communicating a brand, a company should look to simplify its message as this will lead to more value being portrayed as well as an increased chance of target consumers recalling and recognizing the brand.
In Riefler stated that if the company communicating a brand is a global organisation or has future global aims, that company should look to employ a method of communication which is globally appealing to their consumers, and subsequently choose a method of communication with will be internationally understood. It is important that if a company wishes to develop a global market, the company name will also need to be suitable in different cultures and not cause offense or be misunderstood.
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Therefore, when looking to communicate a brand with chosen consumers, companies should investigate a channel of communication which is most suitable for their short-term and long-term aims and should choose a method of communication which is most likely to be adhered to [ clarification needed ] by their chosen consumers. The term "brand name" is quite often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product.
In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark , if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration — such trademarks are called "Registered Trademarks".
Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Putting a value on a brand by brand valuation or using marketing mix modeling techniques is distinct to valuing a trademark. Brand names come in many styles. The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer jeans.
A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a generic term for a product or service, such as Band-Aid , Nylon , or Kleenex —which are often used to describe any brand of adhesive bandage; any type of hosiery; or any brand of facial tissue respectively. Xerox , for example, has become synonymous with the word "copy". A brand line allows the introduction of various subtypes of a product under a common, ideally already established, brand name. See also brand extension.
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The expression of a brand — including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance — is brand identity. This is in contrast to the brand image, which is a customer's mental picture of a brand. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors. Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers.
However, over time, a product's brand identity may acquire evolve , gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, businesses research consumer's brand associations. A brand can also be used to attract customers by a company, if the brand of a company is well established and has goodwill.
The recognition and perception of a brand is highly influenced by its visual presentation. A brand's visual identity is the overall look of its communications. Effective visual brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular visual elements to create distinction, such as specific fonts, colors, and graphic elements. At the core of every brand identity is a brand mark, or logo. In the United States, brand identity and logo design naturally grew out of the Modernist movement in the s and greatly drew on the principles of that movement — simplicity Ludwig Mies van der Rohe 's principle of "Less is more" and geometric abstraction.
These principles can be observed in the work of the pioneers of the practice of visual brand identity design, such as Paul Rand and Saul Bass. As part of a company's brand identity, a logo should complement the company's message strategy.
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An effective logo is simple, memorable, and works well in any medium including both online and offline applications. Color is a particularly important element of visual brand identity and color mapping provides an effective way of ensuring color contributes to differentiation in a visually cluttered marketplace. Brand trust is the intrinsic 'believability' that any entity evokes.
Related Branding to Differ: The Brand Building Handbook for Business Leaders.
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