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How to Improve Thoracic Mobility
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Motions of the Joints of the Lumbar Spine
Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Year Each movement in the three planes of motion i. The movement itself—which, of course, is not imaginary—occurs in an imaginary plane of motion that is perpendicular to the imaginary axis of rotation. In the elbow example, the forearm moves in the sagittal plane of motion as the elbow joint through which the axis of rotation occurs flexes and extends.
That is, the arm moves in the sagittal plane of motion around an axis of rotation that occurs at the elbow, which allows for flexion and extension. Because flexion and extension occur in an anterior and posterior direction, respectively, the axis of rotation is perpendicular to it and projects through the joint in a mediolateral, or side-to-side direction.
STRUCTURE OF THE SPINE
Hence, for the elbow, movement occurs in the sagittal plane as flexion and extension around a mediolateral axis of rotation. Just as there are three planes of motion, there are three axes of rotation: the anterior-posterior axis, the mediolateral axis, and the longitudinal axis. Joints rotate in these axes, allowing movement to occur in the planes.
Imagine a pin that inserts through a joint from front to back anteriorly and posteriorly , effectively pinning down the joint to limit its potential freedom of motion. For example, you can think of a pin entering through the front of the hip joint and exiting out the back. Mediolateral means that we take our imaginary pin and insert it from a lateral, or side approach. As in the earlier elbow example, the axis projects from the medial side of the joint and extends out the lateral side.
The position of the pin allows only forward and backward movement flexion and extension in the sagittal plane about this axis. If we insert our pin through the joint from top to bottom, it will allow movement in transverse plane only i.
The lumbar spine can move axially and nonaxially in all three cardinal planes sagittal, frontal, and transverse. Figure 9.
Six axial cardinal plane motions of the lumbar spine. A, B Extension and flexion in the sagittal plane respectively; lateral views. C, D Left lateral flexion and right lateral flexion in the frontal plane respectively; posterior views. E, F Right rotation and left rotation in the transverse plane respectively; anterior views. Courtesy Joseph E. The term ipsilateral rotation is used to describe the motion created by a muscle that rotates the trunk to the same side as where the muscle is located—in other words, a left-sided muscle that rotates the trunk to the left side is performing ipsilateral rotation, as is a right-sided muscle that rotates the trunk to the right side.
The term contralateral rotation is used to describe the motion created by a muscle that rotates the trunk to the opposite side from where it is located—in other words, a left-sided muscle that rotates the trunk to the right side is performing contralateral rotation, as is a right-sided muscle that rotates the trunk to the left side.
The spinal joints of the trunk can also circumduct.
Lateral bending and transversal rotation
Circumduction is not a joint action but a series of four joint actions performed in sequence: left lateral flexion, flexion, right lateral flexion, and extension. If these joint actions are carried out sequentially, one at a time, the trunk will transcribe a square shape. However, circumduction is not rotation—in fact, no transverse plane rotation occurs with circumduction.
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Related Lateral bending and transversal rotation
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