Nonlinguistic metaphors may be the foundation of our experience of visual and musical art, as well as dance and other art forms. In historical onomasiology or in historical linguistics , a metaphor is defined as a semantic change based on a similarity in form or function between the original concept and the target concept named by a word. Some recent linguistic theories view all language in essence as metaphorical.
Sociologists of religion note the importance of metaphor in religious worldviews, and that it is impossible to think sociologically about religion without metaphor. As a characteristic of speech and writing, metaphors can serve the poetic imagination. This allows Sylvia Plath , in her poem "Cut", to compare the blood issuing from her cut thumb to the running of a million soldiers, " redcoat s, every one"; and enabling Robert Frost , in "The Road Not Taken", to compare a life to a journey.
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Metaphor can serve as a device for persuading an audience of the user's argument or thesis, the so-called rhetorical metaphor. Cognitive linguists emphasize that metaphors serve to facilitate the understanding of one conceptual domain—typically an abstraction such as "life", "theories" or "ideas"—through expressions that relate to another, more familiar conceptual domain—typically more concrete, such as "journey", "buildings" or "food".
A conceptual metaphor consists of two conceptual domains, in which one domain is understood in terms of another.
A conceptual domain is any coherent organization of experience. For example, we have coherently organized knowledge about journeys that we rely on in understanding life. Lakoff and Johnson greatly contributed to establishing the importance of conceptual metaphor as a framework for thinking in language, leading scholars to investigate the original ways in which writers used novel metaphors and question the fundamental frameworks of thinking in conceptual metaphors.
From a sociological, cultural, or philosophical perspective, one asks to what extent ideologies maintain and impose conceptual patterns of thought by introducing, supporting, and adapting fundamental patterns of thinking metaphorically.
How are enemies and outsiders represented? As diseases? As attackers? How are the metaphoric paths of fate, destiny, history, and progress represented? As the opening of an eternal monumental moment German fascism? Or as the path to communism in Russian or Czech for example? Some cognitive scholars have attempted to take on board the idea that different languages have evolved radically different concepts and conceptual metaphors, while others hold to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
German philologist Wilhelm von Humboldt contributed significantly to this debate on the relationship between culture, language, and linguistic communities. Humboldt remains, however, relatively unknown in English-speaking nations. Andrew Goatly , in "Washing the Brain", takes on board the dual problem of conceptual metaphor as a framework implicit in the language as a system and the way individuals and ideologies negotiate conceptual metaphors.
Neural biological research suggests some metaphors are innate, as demonstrated by reduced metaphorical understanding in psychopathy. James W. This involves a critique of both communist and fascist discourse. Underhill's studies are situated in Czech and German, which allows him to demonstrate the ways individuals are thinking both within and resisting the modes by which ideologies seek to appropriate key concepts such as "the people", "the state", "history", and "struggle".
Though metaphors can be considered to be "in" language, Underhill's chapter on French, English and ethnolinguistics demonstrates that we cannot conceive of language or languages in anything other than metaphoric terms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Figure of speech.
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This article is about the figure of speech. For other uses, see Metaphor disambiguation. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Conceptual metaphor. Retrieved 29 March Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 March Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Rhetorical Criticism and Theory in Practice. The Kenyan Review. Retrieved 21 September New York: Modern Library, Artifice and persuasion: The work of metaphor in the rhetoric. In Essays on Aristotle's rhetoric, ed. Amelie Oksenberg Rorty, — Berkeley: University of California Press. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice 4 ed. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press published Retrieved 4 October Contemporary Psychoanalysis , — Leipzig: Hermann Credner.
For an English translation of selections, see Wind, E. London: Faber and Faber. British Journal of Aesthetics, — Journal of Contemporary Religion. Sylvia Plath Forum. The Road Not Taken. Frost, Robert. Mountain Interval". Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Oxford University Press US. Critical Sociology, vol 39, no. September Individuals may apply for a special subscription rate of EUR Guidelines for Contributors 1.
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